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Gender composition at all levels of the workforce and governing body

The information below is based on workforce data at 30 June 2021 (Source: eduPay).

The GTS workforce is predominantly women:

  • 76% Women
  • 24% Men
  • 0.1% self-described.

Proportion of GTS leadership who are women:

  • 44% Executive Principals
  • 56% School Principals/ Liaison Principals
  • 62% Assistant Principal.

Gender breakdown of the DET governing body (DET Executive Board):

  • 56% Women
  • 44% Men.

There were more women than men in every age group:

  • 78% of all 15-24 year olds
  • 73% of all 25-34 year olds
  • 76% of all 35-44 year olds
  • 81% of all 45-54 year olds
  • 80% of all 55-64 year olds
  • 74% of everyone above the age of 65.

The classification level is separated by reporting levels from the most senior level (i. e. the Secretary): someone who reports directly to the Secretary is classified as level -1[1], someone who is two reporting levels from the Secretary is level -2 and so on.

Appendix AExternal Link lists GTS job classifications covered by the classification levels -1 through -9.

Gender composition of GTS full-time workforce by classification level

  • -1:
    • 44% women
    • 56% men
  • -2:
    • 56% women
    • 44% men
  • -3:
    • 62% women
    • 38% men
  • -4:
    • 70% women
    • 30% men
  • -5:
    • 75% women
    • 25% men
  • -6:
    • 74% women
    • 26% men
  • -7:
    • 77% women
    • 23% men
  • -8:
    • 84% women
    • 16% men
  • -9:
    • 90% women
    • 10% men
  • All Levels:
    • 77% women
    • 23% men.

Education Support class

  • ES1-1:
    • 90% women
    • 10% men
  • ES1-2:
    • 84% women
    • 16% men
  • ES1-3:
    • 77% women
    • 23% men
  • ES1-4, ES1-5 & paraprofessionals (PAR):
    • 83% women
    • 17% men
  • ES2-6:
    • 70% women
    • 30% men.

Diversity composition of the GTS workforce

Employees are able to record their cultural identity, gender and disability status in the department’s HR payroll system (eduPay) if they choose. Confidential and anonymous staff surveys with higher response rates provide more an alternative data source.

The information provided below summarises gender and diversity information of respondents of the School Gender Equality Survey.

  • The School Gender Equality Survey found that the survey respondents were predominantly women (n=11,630):
    • 79% identify as Women
    • 18% identify as Men
    • less than 1% are self-described
    • less than 1% use a different term
  • Sexual orientation (n=11,605):
    • 88% Heterosexual
    • 3% Gay or lesbian
    • 3% bisexual
    • 1% pansexual
    • less than 1% asexual
    • 1% use a different term.
  • 1% identify as trans, non-binary, or gender diverse (n=11,562)
  • 4% are a person with disability (n=11,581)
  • Over half are aged between 35 and 54:
    • 2% are 15-24
    • 19% are 25-34
    • 23% are 35-44
    • 27% are 45-54
    • 21% are 55-64
    • 4% are over 65
  • The majority culturally identify as Australian:
    • 79% Australian
    • 12% English, Irish, Scottish
    • 10% European
    • 4% East and/or South-East Asian
    • 1% South Asian
  • Over half are not religious:
    • 54% are not religious
    • 32% Christianity
    • 1% Hinduism
    • 1% Buddhism
    • 1% Islam
  • 1% identify as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander (n=11,594).
  • Most were born in Australia:
    • 82% born in Australia
    • 4% in the United Kingdom
    • 1% in India
    • 1% in New Zealand
    • 1% in China
  • 16% speak a language other than English with their family or community (n=11,586)
  • 61% had caring responsibilities:
    • 8% Children younger than preschool age
    • 6% children preschool age
    • 23% Children primary school age
    • 23% Children secondary school age
    • 11% frail or aged persons
    • 8% persons with a medical condition
    • 7% persons with disability
    • 6% persons with a mental illness.

Gender Pay Equity

The Workplace Gender Equality AgencyExternal Link (WGEA) calculates and publishes gender pay gap statistics which are determined using the following formula:

  • Gender pay gap = 100 times (Male average earning minus Female average earnings) divided by Male average earning

On its website[2], WGEA note what the gender pay gap is, and what it is not:

What it is: The gender pay gap measures the difference between the average earnings of women and men in the workforce. The gender pay gap is an internationally established measure of women’s position in the economy in comparison to men. The gender pay gap is the result of the social and economic factors that combine to reduce women’s earning capacity over their lifetime.

Closing the gender pay gap goes beyond just ensuring equal pay. It requires cultural change to remove the barriers to the full and equal participation of women in the workforce.

What it is not: It is not the difference between two people being paid differently for work of the same or comparable value, which is unlawful. This is called equal pay. Equal Pay is when men and women receive equal pay for work of equal or comparable value. In practical terms, this means that:

  • men and women performing the same work are paid the same amount
  • men and women performing different work of equal or comparable value are paid the same amount.

Gender pay gaps measured across all staff within an organisation usefully summarise the differences the earnings of women and men in a single metric. The following analysis decomposes gender pay gaps into:

  • the within-level gender pay gap – that portion of the overall gender pay gap due to differences in remuneration at individual classification levels; and
  • the across-level or “progression gap” – that portion of the gender pay gap due to differences in the gender composition at different classification levels – which reflects differences in progression (and recruitment) rates across genders across classification levels. This progression gap is calculated by:
    • assuming the average salary of women is equal to the average base salary of men at each classification level (i.e. assuming the within-level pay gap is 0% for every classification level), and
    • calculating the gender pay gap based on this assumption – this “progression gap” quantifies the extent to which the gender pay gap is due to differences in gender composition across classification levels. To learn more about the gender pay gap refer to this guide by WGEA[3] or watch this video[4].

Gender pay gap by GTS region

As at end June 2021 (Source: eduPay):

  • the gender pay gap ranged from 9.1% in North Western Victoria to 10.5% in South Eastern Victoria
  • for each GTS region, the gender pay gap was almost entirely due to the gender progression gap, with the progression gap ranging from 9.3% in North Western Victoria to 10.5% in South Eastern Victoria, and
  • the overall GTS gender pay gap was 9.8%, which was entirely attributable to a progression gap of 9.9%.

Gender pay and progression gap by GTS region

  • South Eastern Victoria:
    • 10.5% progression gap
    • 10.5% gender pay gap
  • North Eastern Victoria:
    • 10.0% progression gap
    • 9.0% gender pay gap
  • South Western Victoria:
    • 9.6% progression gap
    • 9.4% gender pay gap
  • North Western Victoria:
    • 9.3% progression gap
    • 9.1% gender pay gap
  • All GTS regions:
    • 9.9% progression gap
    • 9.8% gender pay gap.

Workplace Sexual Harassment

Under the Equal Opportunity Act 2010 (Vic)External Link employers have a duty to take positive action to eliminate sexual harassment in the workplace. Under the Occupational Health and Safety Act 2004 (Vic)External Link , employers must also provide and maintain a work environment that is safe and without risk to the health of their employees, so far as is reasonably practicable. This is inclusive of workplace gendered violence and workplace sexual harassment.

Recent research suggests that ‘workplace sexual harassment occurs in all industries, in all locations and at all levels’.[5] Recent reports by the Victorian Auditor General’s OfficeExternal Link (VAGO) found that the Victorian Public Service workplaces were not free from sexual harassment and that reporting levels were consistently low compared to the level of experiences of sexual harassment identified through self-reporting surveys.

Consistent with VAGO’s report, there are differences between the department’s data of formal sexual harassment complaints and experiences identified through the anonymous School Gender Equality Survey. This highlights that there are barriers preventing staff from feeling safe to submit a formal sexual harassment complaint.

Between 1 July 2020 and 30 June 2021, 0.04% of GTS staff officially reported experiencing sexual harassment behaviour (Source: eduPay).

7% of respondents who completed the School Gender Equality Survey reported that they had experienced sexual harassment behaviours in their current school within the last 12 months.

Personal experiences of sexual harassment, discrimination and bullying

The information below refers to the results of the School Gender Equality Survey.

Employees were asked if they had personally experienced any sexual harassment behaviours, discrimination and/or bullying at their current school in the last 12 months.

Sexual harassment

  • Seven per cent of GTS respondents indicated that they had experienced sexual harassment behaviours in the last 12 months.
  • Overall experience of harassment behaviours did not differ between men and women (7% and 6% respectively).
  • However, men experienced harassment behaviours less often than women – 66% were subject to harassment less often than once a month (versus 60% for women).
  • Women were more likely than men to take avoidant actions and indicate that they did not submit a formal complaint because they didn’t think it would make a difference (46% versus 39%).
  • Women who had the following intersecting identities were more likely to have experienced sexual harassment than other women:
    • Women with disability (17% versus 7% of other women)
    • LGBTIQ+ women (18% versus 7% of other women).

Discrimination

  • Six per cent of GTS respondents indicated that they had experienced discrimination in the last 12 months.
  • Women who had the following intersecting identities were more likely to have experienced discrimination than other women:
    • Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander women (13% versus 5% of other women)
    • Women with disability (17% versus 5% of other women).

Bullying

  • Fifteen per cent of GTS respondents indicated that they had experienced bullying in the last 12 months.
  • Women who had the following intersecting identities were more likely to have experienced bullying than other women:
    • Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander women (23% versus 15% of other women)
    • Women with disability (32% versus 15% of other women)
    • LGBTIQ+ women (20% versus 15% of other women).

School safety

Eighty-eight per cent of respondents agreed that their school encouraged respectful workplace behaviours, and 81% of respondents agreed that their school took steps to eliminate bullying, harassment and discrimination. Seventy-one per cent of employees agreed that they felt safe to challenge inappropriate behaviour at work, while 14% disagreed.

Differences by demographic characteristics

Gender: Men were more likely than women to agree that they felt safe to challenge inappropriate behaviour at work (81% versus 70%), and that their school took steps to eliminate bullying, harassment and discrimination (87% versus 81%).

Staff classification: Respondents from the Executive / Principal Class were most likely to agree with all statements (92%-97%). This is compared to respondents from the Teacher Class (68-86%) and respondents from the Education Support Class (73%-91%).

School size: Overall agreement levels generally decreased as school size increased. Respondents working at small schools with 100 students or under were more likely to agree with all statements (79%-91%), compared to respondents working at large schools with over 1,500 students (67%-87%).

Recruitment and Promotion

This indicator focuses on recruitment, promotions, career development opportunities, higher duties, internal secondments and exits. Data on recruitment and promotion outcomes can show where women’s careers are stalling and help identify strategies to create more equal opportunities.

An analysis of eduPay data[6] found that the recruitment rate was slightly higher for men in the GTS (6.5%) than for women in the GTS (5.9%).[7]

Offsetting this, the exit rate (employees who left the department over 2020–21) was slightly higher for men in the GTS (7.3%) than for women in the GTS (7.0%). Consequently, the net recruitment rate (total recruitment rate minus total exits) was:

  • -0.8% for men in the GTS: indicating a 0.8% fall in the male GTS headcount over 2020 to 2021.
  • -1.1% for women in the GTS: indicating a 1.1% fall in the female GTS headcount over 2020 to 2021
  • The promotion rate was slightly higher for men (4.7%) than for women (3.9%)
  • The higher duties rate was slightly higher for men (3.6%) than for women (3.2%).
  • The internal secondment rate was marginally higher for men (0.4%) than for women (0.3%)

Fair recruitment and promotion

The following information is from the 2021 School Gender Equality Survey results.

  • 61% of survey respondents agreed that their school made faire recruitment and promotion decisions based on merit.
  • 55% of respondents felt that they had an equal chance at promotion in their school.

Men were more likely than women to agree with both statements.

School support for diversity and inclusion

As shown below, the majority of survey respondents provided positive assessments in relation to their school’s support for diversity and inclusion.

  • 88% of respondents agreed that staff at their school activity support diversity and inclusion in the workplace.
  • 87% of respondents agreed that their leadership team works effectively with people from diverse backgrounds.
  • The majority of respondents (81% to 88%) agreed that various diversity characteristics were not a barrier to success at their school.

Learning and development

As shown below, most survey respondents were positive about aspects of their learning and development.

  • 75% of respondents agreed that there were adequate opportunities for them to develop skills and experience.
  • 71% of respondents were satisfied with the way their learning and development needs have been addressed.

Leave and Flexibility

As per research collated by the Workplace Gender Equality Agency, the benefits of flexible work are broad reaching, for individuals, organisations and society. Beyond the workplace, a push to increase availability and uptake of flexible working arrangements for all employees can have an important transformative effect on harmful gender norms in broader society, by supporting and enabling men to take on increased caring responsibilities outside the workplace.

Gendered data on uptake and availability of flexible work, parental, carers and family violence leave, can help to ensure the implementation of flexible working strategies, policies and practices that respond to the diverse needs of all employees.

The Commission defines this indicator as ‘availability and utilisation of terms, conditions and practices relating to family violence leave, flexible working arrangements and working arrangements supporting workers with family or caring responsibilities’. The infomration below exhibits the number of staff by gender who have accessed Parental Leave, Family Violence Leave and Carers Leaves between 1 July 2020 to 30 June 2021 (Source: eduPay).

  • Full-time staff who accessed Parental Leave:
    • 3.8% for women
    • 1.2% for men
  • Part-time staff who accessed Parental Leave:
    • 7.7% for women
    • 1.1% for men
  • Staff who have accessed Family Violence Leave:
    • 0.1% for women
    • 0.0% for men
  • Staff who have accessed Carers Leave:
    • 38.2% for women
    • 33.8% for men.

The information included for the remainder of the Leave and Flexibility section of the Report is from the School Gender Equality Survey.

Although workforce data can provide a sense of any gendered difference between the utilisation of flexible work and leave arrangements, employee experience data is important in understanding the experiences and assumptions of staff that have informed this representation.

Use of flexible work arrangements

Respondents most commonly cared for children of primary or secondary school age. Thirty-nine per cent of respondents reported not having any caring responsibilities.

Differences by demographic characteristics

  • Gender:
    • Men were more likely than women to have caring responsibility for children younger than preschool age (14% versus 6%), while women were more likely than men to have responsibility for frail or aged persons (12% versus 6%).
  • Staff classification:
    • Staff from the Education Support Class were more likely to have caring responsibility for secondary school aged children (29%, compared to 19%-23% across other staff classifications), while Paraprofessionals[8] were more likely to indicate that they did not have any caring responsibilities (54% versus 26%-41%).
  • School size:
    • Respondents working at a Special school were more likely to have caring responsibility for persons with disability (14%, compared to 0%-7% across other school types).

Workplace flexibility

When asked about workplace flexibility, 93% of respondents agreed that their school would support them if they needed to take family violence leave, and 84% agreed that their school supported employees with family or other caring responsibilities.

Respondents were relatively less likely to agree that their requests for flexible work arrangements would be given due consideration (73%), and that they had the flexibility needed to manage work and non-work activities and responsibilities (72%).

School culture

Overall, survey respondents agreed that there was a positive culture within their school in relation to employees who had family and caring responsibilities. Respondents were relatively less likely to provide positive assessments of their school culture in relation to employees who used flexible work arrangements.

Men were more likely than women to agree with all statements, and particularly in relation to flexible work arrangements, "There is a positive culture within my organisation in relation to employees who":

  • Have family responsibilities: 80% Agree
  • Have caring responsibilities: 79% Agree
  • Use flexible work arrangements: 71% Agree

Gendered Work Segregation

Workplace gender segregation is the unequal distribution of genders across certain occupations, industries and hierarchies. Segregation tends to follow traditional gender lines, with women disproportionately represented in caring and administrative roles, and men disproportionately represented in building and construction trades, engineering and technical occupations as well as in leadership roles across all industries.

Research has shown clear differences in workplaces with high gender segregation, relating to opportunities to enter leadership, access to career progression, flexible work and pay equity[9].

Gender composition by job roles using ANZSCO codes[10], which is a reporting requirement of the Commission, shows that:

  • the proportion of GTS staff who were women ranges from 46% of Regional Education Managers to 86% of Teachers’ Aides, and
  • overall, 77% of GTS staff are women and the average GTS Base Salary in 2021 was $89,023.

Gender Composition by GTS ANZSCO codes

  • Teachers’ Aide:
    • 86% women
    • 14% men
  • Teacher of English to Speakers of Other Languages:
    • 83% women
    • 17% men
  • Primary School Teacher:
    • 82% women
    • 18% men
  • Special Education Teachers:
    • 80% women
    • 20% men
  • P1 to 12 Teachers:
    • 71% women
    • 29% men
  • Secondary School Teacher:
    • 62% women
    • 38% men
  • School principal:
    • 59% women
    • 41% men
  • Outdoor adventure instructor:
    • 48% women
    • 52% men
  • Regional Education Manager:
    • 46% women
    • 54% men
  • All GTS staff:
    • 77% women
    • 23% men.

Gender composition by the School Gender Equality Survey (11,903 school staff)

  • Allied Health or Nurse:
    • 96% women
    • 4% men
  • Executive principal class:
    • 62% women
    • 37% men
    • 1% prefer not to say
  • Teacher Class:
    • 75% women
    • 22% men
    • 3% prefer not to say
  • Education Support class:
    • 91% women
    • 8% men
    • 1% prefer not to say
  • Paraprofessional:
    • 60% women
    • 35% men
    • 3% prefer not to say
  • VPS:
    • 66% women
    • 12% men
    • 22% prefer not to say.

Intersectionality

This section on intersectionality outlines how gender inequality may be compounded by other forms of disadvantage or discrimination that a person may experience due to different aspects of their identity. It presents the key results from the School Gender Equality Survey for respondents who identified as a woman (79% of the responding sample; n=11,630), across a selected range of diversity characteristics: age, Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander identity, cultural and linguistic background, disability, LGBTIQ+ identity, and having caring responsibilities.

Age

This characteristic is based on the answers from women who provided their age range in the survey.

  • 15-24 years: 2% (n=200)
  • 25-34 years: 18% (n=1,647)
  • 35-44 years: 22% (n=2,040)
  • 45-54 years: 29% (n=2,629)
  • 55-64 years: 23% (n=2,077)
  • 65+ years: 4% (n=335) S.

School culture

Women of all age groups provided similar agreement levels – 81% to 87% agreed that there was a positive culture within their school in relation to employees of different ages.

Equal employment opportunity

Women aged 15-24 were the most likely to agree that age was not a barrier to success in their school (85%), while women aged 55-64 were the least likely to agree (78%).

They were also less likely than other women to agree that having a disability was not a barrier to success in their school (51% versus 62%).

Results by gender

  • 15 to 24 years:
    • 85% women
    • 100% men* Caution low sample size (n=27)
  • 35 to 44 years:
    • 84% women
    • 86% men
  • 55 to 64 years:
    • 78% women
    • 80% men
  • 25 to 34 years:
    • 83% women
    • 86% men
  • 45 to 54 years:
    • 83% women
    • 83% men
  • 65+ years:
    • 80% women
    • 89% men.

School support for diversity and inclusion

Perceptions of school support for diversity differed by age groups, with women aged 25-34 being the least likely to:

  • Feel that their leadership team worked effectively with people from diverse backgrounds (84%, compared to 86%-91% of other women).
  • Agree that leaders at their school actively supported diversity and inclusion in the workplace (81% versus 86%-92% of other women).
  • Agree that staff at their school actively supported diversity and inclusion in the workplace (85% versus 87%-92% of other women).

Personal experience of negative behaviours

Differences by age were observed in relation to staff members’ experiences with negative behaviours, including:

  • Younger women (15 to 24 years) were less likely to report that they had been bullied in the last 12 months (7%, compared to 14%-18% of older women).
  • There were no significant differences in personal experience of discrimination across age groups (3%-6%).
  • Experience of sexual harassment generally decreased with age (8%-13% for women aged 15-44, compared to 4%-5% for women aged 45 and over).

Results by gender

Bullying:

  • 15-24 years:
    • 7% of women
    • 7% of men* Caution low sample size (n=27)
  • 25-34 years:
    • 14% of women
    • 11% of men
  • 35-44 years:
    • 14% of women
    • 8% of men
  • 45-54 years:
    • 16% of women
    • 13% of men
  • 55-64 years:
    • 16% of women
    • 13% of men
  • 65+ years:
    • 18% of women
    • 5% of men.

Discrimination:

  • 15-24 years:
    • 3% of women
    • 0% of men * Caution low sample size (n=27)
  • 25-34 years:
    • 5% of women
    • 4% of men
  • 35-44 years:
    • 6% of women
    • 4% of men
  • 45-54 years:
    • 5% of women
    • 6% of men
  • 55-64 years:
    • 6% of women
    • 7% of men
  • 65+ years:
    • 5% of women
    • 2% of men.

Sexual Harassment:

  • 15-24 years:
    • 9% of women
    • 0% of men * Caution low sample size (n=27)
  • 25-34 years:
    • 13% of women
    • 8% of men
  • 35-44 years:
    • 8% of women
    • 7% of men
  • 45-54 years:
    • 5% of women
    • 5% of men
  • 55-64 years:
    • 4% of women
    • 2% of men
  • 65+ years:
    • 4% of women
    • 1% of men.

Leave and flexibility

  • Women aged 35-54 were the most likely to have caring responsibilities (75%-81%, compared to 23%-45% of other women).
  • Younger women were less likely to be using flexible work arrangements (21% for those aged 15-34, versus 33%-43% of older women).
  • Women aged 15-24 were the most likely to agree that having caring responsibilities was not a barrier to success in their school (88%, compared to 70% for women aged 35 to 44), and more likely than older women to agree that using flexible work arrangements were not a barrier to success (86% versus 67%-78%).
  • Among women aged 15-24: 82% reported there was a positive culture within their school in relation to using flexible work arrangements (compared to 68%-77% of older women). 90% agreed there was a positive culture in relation to employees who have caring responsibilities (versus 75%-81%).

Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander

This characteristic is based on women who answered ‘Yes’ compared to those women who answered ‘No’ to the question “Do you identify as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander?”. Caution should be used when interpreting these results due to the low sample size for Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander women (1%; n=56).

School culture / equal employment opportunity

Women who identified as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander were less likely than those who did not identify to feel that there was a positive culture within their school in relation to employees:

  • From varied cultural backgrounds (75%, compared to 84% of other women).
  • Of different sexes / genders (77% versus 86% of other women).
  • Who identify as LGBTIQ+ (78% versus 82% of other women).
  • Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander women were also less likely to agree that cultural background was not a barrier to success in their school (77% versus 86% of other women).
  • However, Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander women were equally as likely as other women to feel there was a positive culture within their school specifically in relation to employees who are Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander (73% versus 74% of other women).
  • Similarly, it was generally felt that being Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander was not a barrier to success in school – 79% of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander women agreed, broadly in line with 82% of other women.

Results by gender

The responses of survey respondents who identified as a man or a woman and Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander to the statemengt "Being Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander is not a barrier to success in my school" were:

  • 79% women agreed,
  • 69% of men agreed * Caution low sample size (n=13).

School support for diversity and inclusion

Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander women were less likely than other women to:

  • Feel that their leadership team worked effectively with people from diverse backgrounds (77% versus 87% of other women).
  • Agree that leaders at their school actively supported diversity and inclusion in the workplace (78% versus 87% of other women).
  • Agree that staff at their school actively supported diversity and inclusion in the workplace (75% versus 88% of other women).
  • Feel culturally safe at work (79% versus 90% of other women).

Personal experience of negative behaviours

Women who identified as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander were more likely to have experienced some negative behaviours at work in the last 12 months. Specifically:

  • 23% had personally experienced bullying (versus 15% of other women).
  • 13% had personally experienced discrimination (versus 5% of other women).
  • Experience of sexual harassment was similar between the cohorts (both 7%).

Results by gender

Responses of survey respondents who identified as a man or a woman and Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander:

  • Personal experience of bullying at work in the last 12 months:
    • 23% women
    • 23% men
  • Personal experience of discrimination at work in the last 12 months:
    • 3% women
    • 8% men
  • Personal experience of sexual harassment at work in the last 12 months:
    • 7% women
    • 15% men *Caution low sample size (n=13).

Leave and flexibility

The proportion of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander women who had caring responsibilities was similar to other women (57% and 58%, respectively). There was some difference in the usage of flexible working arrangements by Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander women (29% versus 34% of other women).

Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander women were equally as likely as other women to agree that having caring responsibilities (72% versus 74%) or using flexible working arrangements (70% versus 69% of other women) were not barriers to success in their school.

Culturally and Linguistically Diverse

This characteristic is based on women who selected non-English speaking countries for “How would you describe your cultural identity/In which country were you born?” or answered ‘Yes’ to ‘Do you speak a language other than English with your family or community?” (24%; n=2180), compared to women who selected English speaking countries or answered ‘No’ to these questions.

School culture and equal employment opportunity

Women who identified as culturally and linguistically diverse were less likely than those who did not identify to feel that there was a positive culture within their school in relation to employees:

  • From varied cultural backgrounds (84% – also 84% for other women).
  • Of different sexes or genders (87% versus 86% of other women).
  • Who identify as LGBTIQ+ (79% versus 78% of other women).

They were also equally likely to agree that cultural background was not a barrier to success in their school (85% versus 86%).

Results by gender

The responses of survey respondents who identified as a man or a woman and culturally and linguistically diverse to the statement "Cultural background is not a barrier to success in my school" were:

  • 85% of women agreed
  • 86% of men agreed.

School support for diversity and inclusion

Culturally and linguistically diverse women were less likely than other women to agree that:

  • Their leadership team worked effectively with people from diverse backgrounds (88% versus 87% of other women).
  • Leaders at their school actively supported diversity and inclusion in the workplace (87% versus 86% of other women).
  • Staff at their school actively supported diversity and inclusion in the workplace (86% versus 88% of other women).
  • Feel culturally safe at work (86% versus 90% of other women).

Personal experience of negative behaviours

Women who identified as cultural and linguistically diverse were no more likely to have experienced some negative behaviours at work in the last 12 months. Specifically:

  • 14% had personally experienced bullying (versus 16% of other women).
  • 6% had personally experienced discrimination (versus 5%).
  • 7% had personally experienced sexual harassment behaviours (versus 8%).

Results by gender

Responses of survey respondents who identified as a man or a woman and culturally and linguistically diverse:

  • Personal experience of bullying at work in the last 12 months:
    • 14% of women
    • 11% of men
  • Personal experience of discrimination at work in the last 12 months:
    • 6% of women
    • 5% of men
  • Personal experience of sexual harassment at work in the last 12 months:
    • 7% of women
    • 5% of men.

Leave and flexibility

  • 63% of women from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds had caring responsibilities (versus 60% of other women).
  • 34% used flexible working arrangements (in line with 34% of other women).
  • Women from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds were equally as likely as other women to agree that having caring responsibilities (76% versus 73%) or using flexible working arrangements (71% versus 69% of other women) were not barriers to success in their school.

Disability

This characteristic is based on women who answered ‘Yes’ to the question “Are you a person with a disability?” (4%; n=321), compared to those women who answered ‘No’.

School culture / equal employment opportunity

Women who identified as women with disability were less likely than those who did not identify to feel that there was a positive culture within their school in relation to employees:

  • From varied cultural backgrounds (68%, compared to 85% of other women).
  • Of different sexes / genders (67% versus 87% of other women).
  • Who identify as LGBTIQ+ (65% versus 79% of other women).

They were also less likely than other women to agree that having a disability was not a barrier to success in their school (61% versus 84%).

Results by gender

The responses of survey respondents who identified as a man or a woman and a person with disability to the statement "Disability is not a barrier to success in my school" were:

  • 61% of women agree,
  • 76% of men agree *Caution low sample size (n=59).

School support for diversity and inclusion

Women with disability were less likely than other women to agree that:

  • Their leadership team worked effectively with people from diverse backgrounds (75% versus 88% of other women).
  • Leaders at their school actively supported diversity and inclusion in the workplace (70% versus 87% of other women).
  • Staff at their school actively supported diversity and inclusion in the workplace (73% versus 89% of other women).
  • Feel culturally safe at work (75% versus 90% of other women).

Personal experience of negative behaviours

Women with disability were more likely than other women to have experienced negative behaviours at work, particularly bullying.

  • 32% had personally experienced bullying (versus 15% of other women).
  • 17% had personally experienced discrimination (versus 5% of other women).
  • 17% had personally experienced sexual harassment behaviours (versus 7% of other women).

Results by gender

This table compares the responses of survey respondents who identified as a man or a woman and a person with disability.

  • Personal experience of bullying at work in the last 12 months:
    • 32% of women
    • 21%* of men *Caution low sample size (n=61).
  • Personal experience of discrimination at work in the last 12 months:
    • 7% of women
    • 13% of men *Caution low sample size (n=61).
  • Personal experience of sexual harassment at work in the last 12 months:
    • 17% of women
    • 10% of men *Caution low sample size (n=61).

Leave and flexibility

  • 58% of women with disability had caring responsibilities (similar to 61% for other women).
  • 35% used flexible working arrangements (broadly in line with 33% of other women).
  • Women with disability were less likely than other women to agree that having caring responsibilities (57% versus 75% of other women) or using flexible working arrangements (53% versus 70% of other women) were not barriers to success in their school.

LGBTIQ+ Identity

For the purposes of this analysis, LGBTIQ+ identity is based on women who answered ‘Yes’ to the question “Are you trans, non-binary or gender diverse?” or who answered ‘Gay or lesbian’, ‘Bisexual’, ‘Pansexual’, ‘Asexual’, ‘I use a different term’ or ‘Don’t know’ to the question “How do you describe your sexual orientation?” (7%; n=613).

School culture / equal employment opportunity

LGBTIQ+ women were less likely to agree, compared to other women, that there was a positive culture in their school in relation to employees:

  • From varied cultural backgrounds (75%, compared to 85% of other women).
  • Of different sexes / genders (77% versus 87% of other women).
  • Who identify as LGBTIQ+ (70% versus 79% of other women).

They were also less likely than other women to agree that gender (76% versus 86% of other women) and sexual orientation (81% versus 89% of other women) were not barriers to success in their school.

Results by gender

Responses of survey respondents who identified as a man or a woman and LGBTIQ+ to the statements:

  • Gender is not a barrier to success in my school:
    • 76% of women agreed
    • 80% of men agreed
  • Sexual orientation is not a barrier to success in my school:
    • 81% of women
    • 78% of men.

School support for diversity and inclusion

LGBTIQ+ women were less likely than other women to agree that:

  • Their leadership team worked effectively with people from diverse backgrounds (80% versus 88% of other women).
  • Leaders at their school actively supported diversity and inclusion in the workplace (77% versus 87% of other women).
  • Staff at their school actively supported diversity and inclusion in the workplace (78% versus 89% of other women).
  • They feel culturally safe at work (81% versus 90% of other women).

Personal experience of negative behaviours

LGBTIQ+ women were more likely than other women to have experienced negative behaviours at work.

  • 20% had personally experienced bullying (versus 15% of other women).
  • 18% had personally experienced discrimination (versus 7% of other women).
  • Experience of discrimination was similar between the cohorts (7% versus 5% of other women).

Results by gender

Responses of survey respondents who identified as a man or a woman and LGBTIQ+:

  • Personal experience of bullying at work in the last 12 months:
    • 20% of women
    • 18% of men
  • Personal experience of discrimination at work in the last 12 months:
    • 7% of women
    • 10% of men
  • Personal experience of sexual harassment at work in the last 12 months:
    • 18% of women
    • 13% of men.

Leave and flexibility

  • 47% of LGBTIQ+ women had caring responsibilities (versus 62% of other women).
  • 29% used flexible working arrangements (versus 34% of other women).
  • LGBTIQ+ women were less likely than other women to agree that having caring responsibilities (65% versus 74% of other women) or using flexible working arrangements (59% versus 70% of other women) were not barriers to success in their school.

Caring Responsibilities

This characteristic is based on women who answered ‘Yes’ to the question “Do you have responsibility for caring for any of the following people?” (58%; n=5296), compared to those women who answered ‘No’.

School culture / equal employment opportunity

Women with caring responsibilities were equally as likely as other women to agree that there was a positive culture in their school in relation to employees:

  • From varied cultural backgrounds (84%, compared to 85% of other women).
  • Of different sexes / genders (86% versus 87% of other women).

However, they were slightly less likely than other women to agree that:

  • Their school had a positive culture regarding employees with caring responsibilities (78% versus 82% of other women).
  • Having caring responsibilities was not a barrier to success in their school (72% versus 78% of other women).

Results by gender

The responses of survey respondents who identified as a man or a woman and had caring responsibilities to the statement "Having caring responsibilities is not a barrier to success in my school" were:

  • 72% of women agree
  • 77% of men agree.

School support for diversity and inclusion

Women with caring responsibilities were equally as likely as other women to agree that:

  • Their leadership team worked effectively with people from diverse backgrounds (both 88%).
  • Leaders at their school actively supported diversity and inclusion in the workplace (both 87%).
  • Staff at their school actively supported diversity and inclusion in the workplace (88% versus 89% of other women).
  • Feel culturally safe at work (89% versus 91% of other women).

Personal experience of negative behaviours

Women with caring responsibilities were no more likely than other women to have experienced negative behaviours at work.

  • 16% had personally experienced bullying (versus 13% of other women).
  • 6% had personally experienced discrimination (versus 4% of other women).
  • 7% had personally experienced sexual harassment behaviours (versus 8% of other women).

Results by gender

Responses of survey respondents who identified as a man or a woman and had caring responsibilities:

  • Personal experience of bullying at work in the last 12 months:
    • 16% of women
    • 11% of men
  • Personal experience of discrimination at work in the last 12 months:
    • 6% of women
    • 6% of men
  • Personal experience of sexual harassment at work in the last 12 months:
    • 7% of women
    • 6% of men.

Leave and flexibility

  • 41% of women with caring responsibilities used flexible working arrangements (versus 22% of women without caring responsibilities).
  • Women with caring responsibilities were slightly less likely than other women to agree that using flexible working arrangements was not a barrier to success in their school (68% versus 72% of other women).

Multiple Diversity Characteristics

This characteristic is based on women who identified with more than one diversity category (Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander, culturally and linguistically diverse, disability, LGBTIQ+ identity, caring responsibilities) (27%; n=1785), compared to those women who only fell under one category (73%; n=4724).

School culture

Women who identified with more than one diversity category were slightly less likely than women who only fell under one category to agree that there was a positive culture in their school in relation to employees:

  • From varied cultural backgrounds (81%, compared to 84% of women who identified with one category).
  • Of different sexes / genders (84% versus 87% of women who identified with one category).
  • Who identify as LGBTIQ+ (76% versus 79% of women who identified with one category).

Equal employment opportunity

Women who identified with more than one diversity category were also slightly less likely than women who only fell under one category to agree that cultural background (83% versus 86% of women who identified with one category) and sexual orientation (86% versus 89% of women who identified with one category) were not barriers to success in their school.

Results by gender

Responses of survey respondents who identified as a man or a woman and identified with more than one diversity category.

  • Being Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander is not a barrier to success in my school:
    • 80% of women agreed
    • 81% of men agreed
  • Cultural background is not a barrier to success in my school:
    • 83% of women agreed
    • 84% of men agreed
  • Sexual orientation is not a barrier to success in my school:
    • 86% of women agreed
    • 86% of men agreed
  • Disability is not a barrier to success in my school:
    • 81% of women agreed
    • 79% of men agreed
  • Gender is not a barrier to success in my school:
    • 84% of women agreed
    • 86% of men agreed
  • Age is not a barrier to success in my school:
    • 81% of women agreed
    • 81% of men agreed.

School support for diversity and inclusion

Women who identified with more than one diversity category were equally as likely as women who identified with one category to agree that their leadership team worked effectively with people from diverse backgrounds (86% versus 87% of other women). However, they were slightly less likely to agree that:

  • Leaders at their school actively supported diversity and inclusion in the workplace (84% versus 87% of women who identified with one category).
  • Staff at their school actively supported diversity and inclusion in the workplace (84% versus 88% of women who identified with one category).
  • They feel culturally safe at work (84% versus 90% of women who identified with one category).

Personal experience of negative behaviours

Women who identified with more than one diversity category were no more likely than women who only fell under one category to have experienced negative behaviours at work.

  • 17% had personally experienced bullying (versus 16% of women who identified with one category).
  • 8% had personally experienced discrimination (versus 5% of women who identified with one category).
  • 9% had personally experienced sexual harassment behaviours (versus 7% of women who identified with one category).

Results by gender

Responses of survey respondents who identified as a man or a woman and identified with more than one diversity category.

  • Personal experience of bullying at work in the last 12 months:
    • 17% of women
    • 14% of men
  • Personal experience of discrimination at work in the last 12 months:
    • 8% of women
    • 7% of men
  • Personal experience of sexual harassment at work in the last 12 months:
    • 9% of women
    • 9% of men.

Leave and flexibility

  • 92% of women who fell under more than one diversity category had caring responsibilities (versus 79% of women who identified with one category).
  • 40% used flexible working arrangements (versus 37% of women who identified with one category).
  • Women who fell under more than one diversity category were equally as likely as women who only fell under one category to agree that having caring responsibilities (72% versus 73% of women who identified with one category) or using flexible working arrangements (both 68%) were not barriers to success in their school.

Footnotes

[1] The classification level is separated by reporting levels from the most senior level (i. e. the Secretary): someone who reports directly to the Secretary is classified as level -1, someone who is two reporting levels from the Secretary is level -2 and so on.

Appendix AExternal Link lists GTS job classifications covered by the classification levels -1 through -9 and includes a more detailed description of the job roles that are included in each level.

[2] https://www.wgea.gov.au/the-gender-pay-gap#what-drives-the-gender-pay-gapExternal Link .

[3] Guide to gender pay equity (WGEA).pdf (eduweb.vic.gov.au)External Link .

[4] The gender pay gap explained - YouTubeExternal Link .

[5] Source: Australian Human Rights Commission, 2020, Respect@Work: Sexual Harassment National Inquiry Report (2020).

[6] Data from 1 July 2020 to 30 June 2021.

[7] The recruitment rate is calculated as the level of recruitment over 2020–21 as a proportion of end-June 2021 staff level.

[8] Please note that results for this cohort (Paraprofessionals) must be treated with caution due to the low sample size (n=48).

[9] Workplace Gender Equality Agency, 2019, Gender segregation in Australia’s workforce based on data source from the Workplace Gender Equality Agency’s (WGEA) dataset (2017-18 reporting period), the Australian Bureau of Statistics’ (ABS) and the Labour Force Quarterly Survey (May 1998 and May 2018 periods).

[10] Accessible at: 1220.0 – ANZSCO -- Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations, 2013, Version 1.3 (abs.gov.au).

Reviewed 23 May 2022

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