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Children and young people were recognised through framework consultations as a key data gap concerning experiences of family violence in Victoria. The RCFV heard that children and young people are often ‘silent victims’ of family violence because services have primarily focused on the safety and wellbeing of women within the context of intimate partner violence. Administrative data collection practices have often grouped young victims into case records belonging to a parent or guardian, rather than recording children and young people as victim survivors in their own right. This includes unborn children who can also be impacted by family violence.
As a result, information collected on children and young people impacted by family violence is limited. The RCFV also heard that many incidents of adolescent violence in the home (AVITH) are not captured in data for a variety of reasons, including under-reporting. This section of the framework discusses improvements which can be made to data collection practices to improve the quality of administrative data concerning children and young people affected by family violence.
Terminology and definitions
There are many terms which can be used to describe children and young people, including juveniles, adolescents, and youths. While these are all acceptable terms, this section will primarily use the term ‘children and young people’, which is consistent with language used in the RCFV and encompasses all individuals aged up to and including 25 years old.
The age used to define children and young people varies across agencies and service providers. In Australia, the age of 18 years is used to broadly distinguish between children and adults. The RCFV used the term ‘child’ to refer to people under the age of 18 years, and ‘young people’ to describe individuals up to and including 25 years of age.41 Specific organisations may break down ages into different categories for their own internal reporting purposes, and the framework does not advise how organisations should define and describe children and young people. Rather, it encourages the collection of disaggregated data surrounding family violence to improve the detail of information available concerning children and young people who experience family violence, including unborn children.
|Child abuse and family violence|
The Department of Health and Human Services Child Protection manual defines child abuse as “any action, or lack of action, that significantly harms the child’s physical, psychological or emotional health and development. Child abuse can occur within a single incident or on multiple occasions and is categorised in the following manner:
Neglect is defined in the Child Protection manual as “failure to provide the child with an adequate standard of nutrition, medical care, clothing, shelter or supervision to the extent where the health or development of the child is significantly impaired or placed at risk. A child is neglected if they are abandoned or left uncared for over unreasonable periods of time that is inconsistent with their age, stage and development.”43
The Australian Institute of Family Studies (AIFS) similarly defines child abuse and neglect as ”any actions of commission or omission by a parent, caregiver or other adult that results in harm, potential for harm, or the threat of harm to a child... even if the harm is unintentional”.44 Five subtypes of harm are further broken by the AIFS to include physical abuse, emotional maltreatment, neglect, sexual abuse and witnessing family violence.45
The Children Youth and Families Act 2005 (Vic) also enables consideration of the pattern and history of harm and the impacts on a child’s safety, stability and development. There is an overwhelming body of evidence which indicates that chronic neglect, abuse and family violence are harmful and have a cumulative and detrimental effect on a child’s development. The Children Youth and Families Act 2005 (Vic) acknowledges the impact of child abuse and neglect on unborn children. Within the act, a person may make a report if there is significant concern for the wellbeing of an unborn child.
The definition of family violence provided under the FVPA does not expressly capture all instances of child abuse so defined (in particular, acts of unintentional neglect, or actions committed by a person who does not have a familial-like relationship with a child), but there is overlap between the two concepts.
This framework acknowledges that child abuse and family violence are not discrete concepts, and definitions for both of these may vary across states, departments and services. As such this framework does not provide advice about how to differentiate between child abuse and family violence.
Family violence and children and young people
Family violence can have serious impacts on the health, development and wellbeing of infants, children and young people. Despite these concerns, currently there is a significant gap in existing survey and administrative data about children and young people who experience family violence. Recognising children and young people who experience family violence as victim survivors in their own right is an important part of addressing this gap.
Evidence suggests that family violence experienced by children and young people often goes unreported, which makes it difficult to assess the full extent to which they are affected by family violence.46 This was noted by the RCFV, and more recently by the AIHW in their 2018 report on family, domestic and sexual violence.47, 48 Despite these limitations, survey and administrative data indicates that many children and young people in Victoria are direct and indirect victimsi of family violence and that some may also use violence in the home.
Information published by the Crime Statistics Agency (CSA) in the 2016-17 iteration of the Victorian Family Violence Database (FVDB) indicated that children were recorded by Victoria Police as being present at 31% of all family incidents in the 2016-17 financial year. People under the age of 18 years made up 10% of all recorded affected family members and 6.6% of all other parties in that same financial year.49 The 2016 Personal Safety Survey (PSS) found that nationally, for 1 in 2 women (50%) who experienced violence from a current partner, and 2 in 3 women (68%) who experienced violence from a former partner, children had also seen or heard the violence.50
Contributing circumstances and specific presentations of family violence risk
Children and young people are victim survivors in their own right, and experience many forms of family violence including physical, emotional, and sexual abuse. In addition, section 1(b) of the Family Violence Protection Act 2008 (Vic) (FVPA) describes that an incident may also constitute family violence if “behaviour by a person... causes a child to hear or witness, or otherwise be exposed to the effects of” family violence (including physical, sexual or emotional abuse).51 These experiences are typically referred to as ‘secondary’ or ‘indirect’ family violence victimisation, and the FVPA clearly articulates such experiences as a distinct type of family violence affecting children and young people. Children may therefore be exposed to a multitude of experiences of family violence outside the types of behaviour which are often associated with it.
Children can experience all risk factors that can be experienced by an adult and there are additional recognised risk factors specific to children or their circumstances outlined in the MARAM Framework and practice guidance. These experiences of risk factors can present in a range of ways and can include:52
- direct witnessing of or intervening in incidents of violence against a family member53
- indirect knowledge of incidents against a loved one including being aware of threats of abuse,
- physical injuries, property damage, or psychological harm to others54
- being subjected to indirect physical harm (for example, a mother being struck while holding a baby)55
- having to be responsible for the care and safety of pets and family members56
- being made to feel they are responsible for the violence57
- loss of housing, treasured possessions or a sense of security because of violence58
- experiencing disruptions to schooling including prolonged absences or attending multiple new schools in a short space of time59
- feeling unable to bring friends home or being marginalised because of a perpetrator’s controlling or unpredictable behaviour60
Specific circumstances and presentations of Adolescent family violence in the home and in intimate partner relationships
The RCFV heard that children and young people are not only victims of family violence, but also sometimes use violence against their parents, siblings, girlfriends and boyfriends, and other family members. There is no one determinant of adolescent family violence, and it is believed to be the product of a range of multifaceted and interconnected dynamics.61 Research indicates that adolescents who use family violence may have experienced family violence themselves as children, and their behaviour is a continuation of intergenerational violence.62 In particular, Child & Family Service Ballarat Inc. reported in their submission to the RCFV that 80% of the adolescents who attended their AFV program reported experiencing violence in the home themselves, predominantly perpetrated by a father or stepfather.63 Victims of violence used by adolescents include parents, siblings, grandparents and family pets.64
Adolescents can also use violence in their intimate relationships, and this is recognised as a unique presentation of family violence risk. The RCFV noted that there is under-reporting and underrecognition of adolescent family violence, which contributes to an absence of administrative data available on the subject.
Additionally, much of the existing administrative data in Victoria concerning adolescent family violence comes from information recorded by police responding to family violence incidents, however this data does not fully capture the extent of this issue. The RCFV noted that AVITH is likely to be underreported to police by parents for a variety of reasons:65
- feelings of parental guilt, self-blame, shame and denial
- minimisation of abuse (for example, excusing behaviour as inherent traits or learnt behaviour)
- fear of how the adolescent might react upon discovering a report to police
- fear that their child may get a criminal record if the violence is reported
The limited options that police have to respond to AVITH may also contribute to a reluctance for parents or carers to report an adolescent’s behaviour to police. In their 2018-2023 strategy for family violence, sexual offences and child abuse, Victoria Police noted that at present “police options to respond to family violence are limited in cases involving child or youth perpetrators”.66 Family Violence Safety Notices and holding powers cannot be used on children and young people who use family violence, due to concerns about the negative impact of such actions on young people. Additionally, children, young people and adolescents who use family violence are recognised to have complex needs, including increased association with mental illness, acquired brain injuries, the use of drugs and alcohol, and past exposure to family violence.67
Under-reporting and barriers to accessing services
As with most instances of family violence, under-reporting was recognised by the RCFV to play a major role in the absence of data surrounding children and young people and their experience with family violence.68 Children and young people are especially vulnerable to being subjected to unreported violence, as perpetrators of incidents against children and young people are often their parents or a person whom they depend on for care.69 In such circumstances children and young people may be reluctant or unable to report abuse against their parent or guardian, and they may not recognise that the behaviour is unusual or constitutes violence. Therefore, staff in mainstream services, including registered doctors, nurses, midwives, early childhood teachers, school teachers and principals can play an important role in the identification and early intervention of children and young people who are experiencing family violence.
The RCFV noted that children and young people may face additional barriers to accessing family violence services or reporting incidents. It was noted that children and young people are less likely than other age groups to seek help, and that this reluctance may be a consequence of “confusion, poor self-esteem and lack of accessible information”.70
Effects of family violence on children and young people
Not all children and young people exposed to family violence are affected in the same way. For some, the effects of family violence may be chronic and debilitating, whereas others may have less adverse outcomes. A range of positive and negative factors may impact a child or young person’s resilience or vulnerability to family violence.71 It should therefore not be assumed that a child or young person will fare worse than children who have not experienced family violence or that they will become perpetrators themselves. However, the RCFV noted that family violence has the potential to cause serious impacts on the health and wellbeing of infants, children and young people. Evidence about the severity of the impacts of family violence on children and young people affirms the importance of recognising and responding to children and young people as victim-survivors in their own right. Some of the effects of violence against children and young people are noted below.
- Intergenerational transmission of abuse and neglect: Although most survivors of child maltreatment do not go on to maltreat their own children, evidence suggests that those who were abused or neglected as children and young people are at an increased risk of intergenerational abuse, neglect, re-victimisation or perpetration of family violence.72
- Complex trauma: This is a term which refers to the “multiple and interacting symptoms, disorders and the broad range of cognitive, affective and behavioural outcomes associated with prolonged and cumulative trauma”.73
- Re-victimisation: Research suggests that adults, particularly women who were child victims of abuse or neglect, are at a risk of re-victimisation later in life.74 Results from the 2016 PSS indicated that children who witnessed partner violence against their parents were 2-4 times as likely to experience partner violence as adults than children who had not.75
- Attachment and interpersonal relationship problems: Trauma caused by family violence can result in damage to a child or young person’s brain development, reducing their capacity to self-regulate their behaviour. Coupled with learned adaptive responses to trauma, children and young people may develop patterned behaviours which impact their attention, memory, sense of identity and their relationships.76 This, in combination with poor early childhood attachments may initiate a lifelong trajectory of interpersonal difficulties.77
- Developmental impacts: Research has shown that exposure to family violence, especially in the early years can have a significant impact on children’s development, largely because it disrupts attachment, over-develops regions of the brain involved with anxiety and fear responses and limits children’s opportunities for interaction and play-based learning.78 Family violence can also affect a child or young person’s development via an impact on school attendance, housing security, social connectedness and educational or social factors.79
- Youth suicide: Research suggests that there is a link between youth suicide and abuse, with some research finding that all forms of child maltreatment were associated with adolescent suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, in particular child sexual abuse and emotional abuse.80
- Aggression, violence and criminal activity: Research suggests that physical abuse and exposure to family violence are the most consistent predictors of youth violence. A study in the US found that abused and neglected children were 11 times more likely to be arrested for criminal behaviour in adolescence.81
- Impact on unborn children: family violence against pregnant women may cause premature birth, low birth weight, foetal injury and foetal death. Unborn children may also be impacted by actions taken against their mother, including denial of access to food and antenatal health services.
Why do we need to collect information on children and young people?
There is a lack of data concerning the experiences of children and young people as both victims and people who use family violence. Currently there is very limited evidence collected in both surveys and administrative data which can be used to make informed decisions about service use, responsive intervention strategies and to understand the overall experiences of family violence faced by children and young people. The collection of high quality administrative data concerning children and young people presents an opportunity to improve the evidence base on children and young people impacted by family violence.
Limited identification of child victims of family violence in data
A key theme emerging from the RCFV was that children and young people experiencing family violence should be recognised as victim-survivors in their own right. In administrative data, mothers or caregivers are often recorded as a primary victim of family violence, and details about affected children and young people are either not collected, or exist in case notes and therefore cannot be suitably used for data analysis. This approach not only de-values the impact of family violence on a child or young person, but it also compromises the quality of administrative data collected about the experiences of children and young people affected by family violence. By missing the opportunity to collect information on children and young people who present at a service with a parent or guardian, it is difficult to know the extent, nature and outcomes of family violence on this population. It will also be difficult to consider important demographic details about these victims, including whether they belong to other priority communities, and to track the trajectory of these individuals through service data over time.
Data collected on children and young people as victims is more often picked up by child-specific services such as education, child protection and health care services. As data systems set up for these services may not be specifically designed to capture information on family violence, this will contribute to data gaps. Although the FVPA specifically identifies children and young people who witness or are otherwise affected by family violence as victims in their own right, there is a risk that non-specialist family violence agencies and services will make their own assessments about whether a child or young person is or is not a victim of violence and abuse, particularly if staff have not been trained in identifying family violence. This may contribute to an under-representation of children and young people who experience family violence.
Gaps in information
There are many noted gaps in knowledge surrounding children and young people’s experiences with family violence, and at the most basic level “there is little to no research about understanding the impact of family violence from the young child’s perspective”.82 As details of children’s experiences are often bundled with the experiences of adult victims of family violence, disaggregated data concerning children and young people affected by family violence is rarely collected. As a result there are noted gaps in information on:
- the prevalence of family violence affecting children and young people83
- the extent of violence occurring between siblings or other familial relationships outside of parents and intimate partners84
- the long-term effects and cumulative harm of direct and indirect exposure to family violence on children and young people85
- the experiences of children and young people from other priority communities including children with disability or mental illness, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children, children from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds or LGBTI children and young people86
- details surrounding children and young people who use family violence, including:87
- the nature and extent of this type of family violence
- the impact that prior exposure to family violence as a victim-survivor has on children and young people who go on to use violence themselves
- the availability and efficacy of services available for children and young people who use family violence
Challenges in current data collection practices
There are a number of challenges which impact the ability to collect information on children and young people as unique individuals when they present for service with a parent, including IT restrictions and lack of training and education about proper data collection practices. Of significant concern is that detailed information about children and young people affected by family violence can be limited in administrative family violence data if a service provider or agency only captures information on adult victims of violence. This may occur if existing IT infrastructure one supports one client to be attached to a case file or record in their data management system, limiting organisations’ capacity to record detailed client information on multiple people affected by the same family violence event. It may also occur if organisations are not specifically resourced to provide family violence services to children and young people. The RCFV noted for example that details about children and young people captured in specialist family violence service data are sometimes lost, where children are counted as ‘add-ons’ to their mothers.88 Additionally, due to the broad range of entry points where children and young people may be captured, these individuals may not be accurately recognised as victims of family violence.
Data collection standards for collecting information on children and young people
While this data framework does not introduce additional data standards in relation to children and young people, there are specific issues organisations should be aware of when collecting information on family violence. This section includes advice on the complexities of collecting information from children and young people, and also on specific considerations when applying the family violence data items to this priority community.
Collecting data from children and young people
It is important to collect information directly from a child or young person regarding their experiences with family violence whenever possible and appropriate.89 Respecting a child or young person’s right to have a say and be heard is important in acknowledging their role as a victim who has experienced family violence, even in circumstances where the violence was indirect. Gathering information directly from the victim will also provide insight on how children and young people uniquely experience family violence and will allow them to self-identify with the other priority communities discussed in this framework.
However, collecting information from children and young people that accurately and authentically reflects their experience can be difficult. As highlighted in the National Health and Medical Research Council’s National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research, different levels of maturity and the corresponding capacity to be involved in decision making need to be considered when working with children and young people.90 Although this report concerns data collection in research, the principles can be applied to an administrative context. The Communities and Families Clearinghouse Australia released a practice sheet in 2011 which provides information on best practices for collecting information from children and young people. They note that services should be mindful of the following when looking to collect data directly from children:91
- Issues of privacy and confidentiality are especially significant when collecting information from or about children and young people. The recent introduction of the FVIS Scheme and the CIS Scheme impact privacy and confidentiality, and organisations should be clear about their obligations and authorisations under those schemes. Staff should also prepare for the possibility that a child or young person may disclose information which is subject to mandatory reporting or may be shared to assess or manage family violence risk or promote safety and wellbeing and ensure that the child or young person understands the limitations of privacy and confidentiality.
- Ethical issues: Care should be taken to factor in vulnerability and potential harm from collecting data directly from a child. Where a child or young person has been a victim of family violence, being asked to specifically recall incidents may cause distress to the child or young person. Data collection should therefore consider sympathetic methodologies, appropriate contexts, protocols and procedures which enable data collectors to prepare for and manage the potential for risk and re-traumatisation.92
- The age of the child: Collecting data directly from young children (6 years or under) which accurately reflects their experiences can be difficult, as they may not respond to traditional data collection methods (for example, surveys, interviews with strangers). Agencies and service providers should be aware of issues surrounding the age at which a child can consent to directly provide information which is captured in data.
- The method used to gather data should be considered depending on the age, developmental stage, skills and capabilities of a child. Written data collection for instance may not be appropriate if a child or young person is not comfortable with reading and writing. Similarly if a form is lengthy a child or young person may not have the attention span to complete the document. Non-traditional methods of data collection may make it easier to collect information and may make the process more effective for young children.
- Children and young people are more affected by leading questions and effort should be made to ensure that an interview is not intentionally or unintentionally leading a child or young person to certain answers. It should be made clear when working with children and young people that there are no correct or incorrect responses when speaking about their experiences.
- Children and young people given the option to have a parent present or not present: Wherever possible, children and young people should be given the option as to whether they would prefer to have a non-offending parent or guardian present when participating in interviews. A child’s answers to questions may vary depending on whether a parent or guardian is present. Data collectors should also be mindful in the context of family violence to consider the possibility that a parent or guardian is the perpetrator of abuse. In this circumstance it would not be appropriate to gather information from a child or young person with that parent or guardian present.
Collecting data on children and young people affected by family violence
Types of family violence
Research and evidence presented to the RCFV suggested that while children and younger people experience similar types of abuse as intimate partner violence, including physical and sexual violence,93 they can also witness or be exposed to the aftermath of violence against other family members. The FVPA classifies this type of exposure as a distinct kind of family violence, in acknowledgment of its impact on children and young people. However children and young people who are exposed to family violence should be treated as victims in their own right, rather than as bystanders, witnesses or secondary victims. This includes unborn children who can also be impacted by family violence.
Thus while the data collection framework currently includes ‘exposure’ as an item within the ‘type of family violence’ data item, it is expected that, over time, and as a result of work underway as part of the family violence reforms, organisations will be increasingly equipped to identify the types of family violence that children and young people experience through other categories. This may result in reduced use of the ‘exposure’ response, as it is increasingly acknowledged that an indirect experience of family violence may be described through other terms, for example as emotional abuse.
Relationship between parties
Unlike other victims of family violence, children and young people are more likely to be affected by family violence perpetrated by a family member who is not an intimate partner. Victoria Police data published by the CSA showed that in the financial year 2016-17, a parent was recorded as the other party in 63.6% of family incidents where the affected family member was under 18 years of age.94 Less information is currently known about other types of relationships where children are impacted by family violence, however this can include an adolescent who uses violence against siblings, as well violence in the context of adolescent intimate partner relationships. Information on the relationship between parties is therefore important to increase understanding of family violence involving children and young people and the family members who are most often associated with these events.
Role of party
When recording children or young people who present with their mothers or guardians as clients of a service, agencies and services are encouraged to record these children and young people separately as unique victims. These children and young people should also be classified as victims, and not ‘secondary victims’ or ‘indirect victims’, regardless of whether they experienced direct or indirect family violence. Recording children and young people under other terms discredits the impact that exposure to family violence can have on a child or young person.
Accurate identification of the role of the party is particularly relevant within the context of adolescent family violence. The RCFV determined that adolescents who use violence in the home should be recognised by the family violence system as different to adult-perpetrated family violence. The drivers behind adolescent family violence must be considered using a developmental lens, and with a recognition that language such as perpetrator is stigmatising. It is also likely that a young person using violence is a victim survivor of past or current family violence.
Training and resources
The leading national organisation working to improve the lives of Australians who have experienced childhood trauma. This includes people who have experienced child abuse in all its forms, neglect, domestic violence in childhood and other adverse childhood events.
Phone: 02 8920 3611
Centre for Excellence in Child and Family Welfare
The peak body for nearly 100 child and family services in Victoria, providing training, advocacy and support to children, young people and families in Victoria.
Phone: 03 9614 1577
A free, private and confidential telephone and online counselling service specifically for young people between 5 and 25 years old in Australia.
Phone: 1800 55 1800
Maternal and Child Health Line
A state-wide telephone service available every day of the year for Victorian families with children from birth to school age. Maternal and child health nurses are available to provide information, support and guidance regarding a range of issues.
Phone: 13 22 29
A confidential and anonymous phone counselling service for parents and carers of children and teenagers in Victoria. It offers counselling, information and support around a range of parenting issues.
Phone: 13 22 89
41 RCFV 2016, Volume 2 Report and recommendations, p.102.
42 Child Protection Manual; cpmanual.vic.gov.au/glossary#h3_74
43 Child Protection Manual; cpmanual.vic.gov.au/glossary#h3_239
44 AIFS 2014, Who abuses children? viewed 13 June 2018,
45 AIFS 2014, Effects of child abuse and neglect for children and adolescents, viewed 13 June 2018,
46 RCFV 2016, Volume 2 Report and recommendations, p.103.
48 AIHW 2018, Family, domestic and sexual violence in Australia 2018, Cat. no. FDV 2, Canberra, p.42.
49 Crime Statistics Agency (CSA) 2017, Download data tables, viewed 13 June 2018,
50 AIHW 2018, Family, domestic and sexual violence in Australia 2018, Cat. no. FDV 2, Canberra, p.71.
51 Family Violence Protection Act 2008 (Vic) s.1.
52 An indirect victim is any child or young person who was not directly targeted during a family violence incident, but was otherwise affected by it. This can include witnessing or overhearing violence, or being exposed to the aftermath of an incident (such as seeing broken furniture, injuries on loved ones, etc.)
53 Commission for Children and Young People 2015, Submission regarding Family Violence Issues, no. 790, viewed 22 June 2018,
55 RCFV 2016, Volume 2 Report and recommendations, p.106.
61 RCFV 2016, Volume 4 Report and recommendations, p.154.
62 RCFV 2016, Volume 4 Report and recommendations, p.156.
63 Child & Family Services Ballarat Inc., Submission to Royal Commission into Family Violence, no. 687, viewed 22 June 2018,
64 RCFV 2016, Volume 4 Report and recommendations, p.152.
66 Victoria Police 2018, Policing harm, upholding the right: Victoria Police strategy for family violence, sexual offences and child abuse
2018-2023, viewed 15 June 2018,
67 RCFV 2016, Volume 4 Report and recommendations, p.155.
68 RCFV 2016, Volume 2 Report and recommendations, p.103.
69 AIFS 2014, Who abuses children?, viewed 13 June 2018,
70 RCFV 2016, Volume 2 Report and recommendations, p.138.
71 AIFS 2014, Effects of child abuse and neglect for children and adolescents, viewed 13 June 2018,
72 AIFS 2014, Effects of child abuse and neglect for adult survivors, viewed 13 June 2018,
73 AIFS 2014, Effects of child abuse and neglect for children and adolescents, viewed 13 June 2018,
74 AIFS 2014, Effects of child abuse and neglect for adult survivors, viewed 13 June 2018,
75 ABS 2017, 4906.0 Personal Safety, Australia, 2016, viewed 14 June 2018,
76 Commission for Children and Young People 2015, Submission regarding Family Violence Issues, no. 790, viewed 22 June 2018,
77 AIFS 2014, Effects of child abuse and neglect for children and adolescents, viewed 15 June 2018,
78 DHHS 2012, Assessing children and young people experiencing family violence: A practice guide for family violence practitioners, viewed 15 June 2018,
80 Miller, A B, Esposito-Smythers, C, Welsmoore, J T & Renshaw, K D 2013, ‘The relation between child maltreatment and
suicidal behaviour: A systematic review and critical examination of the literature’, Clinical and Child and Family Psychology Review.
81 English, D, Wildom, C & Brandford, C 2004, ‘Another look at the effects of child abuse’, National Institute of Justice Journal, vol. 251, pp. 23-24.
82 RCFV 2016, Volume 2 Report and recommendations, p.103.
84 AIFS 2014, Who abuses children?, viewed 13 June 2018,
85 AIHW 2018, Family, domestic and sexual violence in Australia 2018, Cat. no. FDV 2, Canberra, p.42.
86 RCFV 2016, Volume 2 Report and recommendations, p.112.
87 AIHW 2018, Family, domestic and sexual violence in Australia 2018, Cat. no. FDV 2, Canberra, p.30.
88 RCFV 2016, Volume 2 Report and recommendations, p.133.
89 AIFS 2011, Collecting data from parents and children for the purpose of evaluation, Communities and Family Clearinghouse Australia, viewed 15 June 2018,
90 NHMRC 1999, National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Research Involving Humans, viewed 6 June 2018,
91 AIFS 2011, Collecting data from parents and children for the purpose of evaluation, Communities and Family Clearinghouse Australia, viewed 15 June 2018,
92 Morris, A, Hegarty, K & Humphreys, C 2012, ‘Ethical and safe: Research with children about domestic violence’, Research Ethics, vol. 8, no. 2, p.136.
93 RCFV 2016, Volume 2 Report and recommendations, p.112.
94 CSA 2017, Download data tables, viewed 13 June 2018,
Reviewed 14 July 2020